Are there changes to the rules if my employer repays some of my student loans?

Yes. Some employers do this as an employee benefit. Between the date the bill is signed and the end of 2020, they can offer up to $5,250 of assistance without that money counting as part of the employee’s income. If the employer pays tuition for classes an employee is taking, that money will also count toward the $5,250.

Which retirement account rules would be suspended?

For the calendar year 2020, no one would have to take a required minimum distribution from any individual retirement accounts or workplace retirement savings plans, like a 401(k). That way, you aren’t forced to sell investments that may have fallen in value, which would lock in losses. If you don’t need the money now, you can let the investments sit and hope that they recover.

This change would not affect old-fashioned pensions.

What if I have to take money out of my I.R.A. or workplace retirement plan early?

You could withdraw up to $100,000 this year without the usual 10 percent penalty, as long as it’s because of the outbreak.

You would also be able to spread out any income taxes that you owe over three years from the date you took the distribution. And if you want, you could put the money back into the account before those three years are up, even though the rules may normally keep you from making a contribution that large.

This exception applies only to coronavirus-related withdrawals. You qualify if you tested positive, a spouse or dependent did or you experienced a variety of other negative economic consequences related to the pandemic. Employers could allow workers to self-certify that they are qualified to pull money from a workplace retirement account.

Can I still borrow from my 401(k) or other workplace retirement plan?

Yes, and you could take out twice the usual amount. For 180 days after the bill passes, with certification that you’ve been affected by the pandemic, you’d be able to take out a loan of up to $100,000. Usually you can’t take out more than half your balance, but that rule would be suspended.

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